University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
I. Irich criticized passive learning by linking it with social structure, and proposed to regain proactive learning 1.
Proactive learning is one the main axes in the Japanese new curriculum guideline which was fully implemented from April 2020. In order to realize such learning, importance was placed on
Teaching materials based on local history and oral history is an example putting importance on “self-relevance” learning. However, such subjects are still far from the daily lives of students, causing temporal and spatial distances. (Thus it can not fully function as a material to induce “self-relevance”.)
In regards to the training of information utilization ability of ICT, the educational goal is "the comprehensive learning of information collection, analysis, and transmission". However, there are criticisms that many practices only covers the instruction of ICT equipment utilization 3. There are ICT utilization practices that focus on nurturing thinking ability, yet, since information is “given” by teachers, learning is rather passive for children and students.
Thus, opportunity to think based on the multifaceted and multi-angular information is not given.
In regards to the use of MLA, it is suggested that it is important to visit related facilities 4 (to depthen the understanding of such places). However, lack in time and distance is a burden for many teachers. As a method to solve such problems, there are practical studies using digital archives such as application of the Asian Historical Materials Center and the Niigata regional video archive5-6. Yet, such studies are limited to individual and only single archives, therefore the materials and information are restricted to limited resources. Under such circumstances, students are unable to encounter various materials and is difficult to notice the multifaceted nature of events.
Therefore, in order to solve the above issues, this research has developed teaching materials, designed lessons, and practiced from the following viewpoints.
In order to solve the issue of "lack in self-relevance", the temporal and spatial distances between the learning target, and the learner should be reduced.
Reduction of such distance will lead to familiarity and connectivity, which gives opportunity to think more deeply towards the learning object.
Passive learning due to the given teaching materials can be solved through the “curation” activity which is collecting, organizing information and materials, and adding new meanings and values towards the learning object.
In order to create more occasions for students to encounter serendipity (unexpected encounters and surprises) using multiple archives with diverse materials and opinions which leads to thinking from multifaceted perspectives is important.
A curation class was designed which used digital archives to consider history in a multifaceted and multi angled manner, multiple sources was used and practiced an inquiry-based learning classes at elementary, middle and high schools.
Practiced a workshop which utilized the "Japan Search" which is integrated material search digital archive as preliminary practice.
Implementation of a new function was made on the “Japan Search” along with the consultation of development engineers to improve functions for educational usage. By implementing such function, collaborative collection, collaborative editing, collaborative browsing and online browsing of materials became possible.
Constructed question from textbook materials and developed the teaching materials and class design along with the usage of "Japan Search" in accordance to the individual theme.
Practiced social studies classes throughout the year at elementary, middle and high school.
Rubric's analysis on cognitive transformation of children was conducted before and after the practice.
By setting the theme based on one's own interest and creating questions as a starting point to collect materials using the integrated archive, made recognitions that the joy of exploring based on the interests and the viewpoints of reading and interpreting the materials varied depending on the person.
An integrated archives platform that is easy for anyone to use in classes, with accumulated practical examples of each unit that are closely connected to the annual curriculum and provided with educational metadata such as materials and connections with each unit is hoped to be constructed and completed.
Future prospect of this research is to develop an online teaching platform to support the rich learning of distance education in order to create fair and diverse educational opportunities.
This research will contribute to inquiring support for the learning of students and the development of teaching materials for teachers.
In order to realize such concept, specifying on which metadata to use and how to promote cooperation with related organization is the future issue.
The presentation will be reporting the result of the lesson practiced using digital archive that was conducted throughout the year. Remote digital archive was used during the COVID-19 lock down from April 2020 to continue this study.
Therefore, the presentation will not only focus on how to utilize such digital archives for educational purposes, but also how it can ensure fair and equitable access to educational opportunities under severe conditions. For instance, educational method that can also function under fatal pandemic will be required in up coming era. Thus, the social significance of this research will also be discussed, report practical research with high novelty that bridges various future education and digital technology.
1 Illich, Ivan. (1977). “The deschooling society.” (Azuma, Hiroshi., Ozawa, Syuuzou.). Tokyo Sougensya.
2 Suwa, Masaki., Fujii, Haruyuki. (2015). “Chi no dezain Zibungototoshite kangaeyou.” Kindaikagakusya.
3 Ueda, Yuta. (2013). “Consideration About the Need for Use of Archives in Education of the Information Literacy Education in High School.” Records Management, No65, pp.100-108.
4 Nagai, Hiroshi. (2004). “The Significance of Archives of Social Studies Education.” Shakaika Kyouiku Kenkyu, No.91, pp.34-40.
5 Yoshimine, Shigeki. (2007). “Asia Rekeshi Shiryou Center to Koukou Rekishi Kyouiku.” Archives, 27: 72-75.
6 Kitamura, Yorio. (2018). “Practical Research of Using Local Digital Visual Archives in Education: Possibilities and Problems.” Digital Archive Gakkaishi, Vol.2, No.2, pp.83-86.